Document Type : Research Paper
Diversifying economy, increasing human development index, industrialization's problems, beyond standard pollution especially in metropolises, rural immigrations, boosting efficiency and human resource effectiveness, employment, cultural communications, protecting environment and generally constant development are of this world's concerns. All countries in different developmental levels are trying to respond this concern. Meanwhile those who are interested in diversifying economy and try to get away from single basis economy, try to create new methods or path. One solution is tourism. Most of the countries especially those that have environmental potentials have long term programs in their national development program. Today tourism as a vast service industry has gained a proper status in economical, cultural, social and political matters. Tourism is the phenomenon of the twentieth century and cannot be disregarded.
Population growth especially in youth generation in the recent decades has made us think of new ways of employment and economic development. Utilizing different tourist attractions for income creation and improving country's economic status is one of thesis ways.
Considering Kandovan village's location and its unique structure and also tourism effectiveness in economic development as economists call it "invisible export" by thoughtful insight and also by training natives and tourists we can show this industry's results in the area. According to this study's findings that are gathered through field study and library research, and is practical, in order to have effective programs in rural areas, and ultimately due to the fact that Kandovan has tourist attractions, it can have important effect on family economic status and village economy improvement.
Method and materials
This study has a descriptive- analysis method and practical goal. It is conducted to help organizing in rural areas and have effective role in activities.
Tourism development in rural areas is an important element and a solution to help the village from poverty, immigration, economic and social problems. Besides tourism is an effective variable in enhancement of infrastructure, promotion of social and cultural exchange, attracting capitals and using it in the village is an economic development. Wilson points out that: tourism development is a solution in attracting foreign currency, employment and comprehensive growth. Netherland believes that tourism development can help rural restoration. Hall states that Development of rural tourism can improve the performance, production efficiency, and helps increase rural income.
Ivana believes that rural tourism development has an important effect on economy diversifying. Some believe that rural tourism is a facilitator in rural area revitalization. Studies prove that there is relation between rural tourism development, and expanding production support and promotion of the indicators of health and well-being. Development literature indicates that in development of tourism in rural areas, including diversification of the local economy, development and social progress and development of the rural character in light of their own cultural values. Din believes that between prosperity of the tourism industry by strengthening the role of rural women, strengthening the efficient use of natural resources in rural economic revival there is meaningful relation.
Based on the findings that are gathered through field study and library research and by survey and analysis, we conclude that this area has the potentials for tourism development which can have noticeable economic effects. This village has lots of tourist attractions such as: Natural, historical, cultural, economic attractions, etc. each is a factor for attracting tourist. Among economic attractiveness of the village we can name garden and dairy products and honey and mineral water.
One of the results of this study is the presence of the culture of tourist acceptance by people who want internal and external tourists from all study groups (women, youth, those working for municipality, men, etc.). As a result providing the basic facilities including transport, construction of places for tourist accommodation and necessary training for women and youth in the groups can act in this field is required.
Health services at an advanced level are of issues that are of interest to tourists and the absence of which can have negative effect on village development and Kandovan's family economy improvement.
On the other hand based on the findings and in light of the fact that Kandovan is located in a region that is dominant by cold weather in the second half of the year, Tourists visit accurse only in the first half of the year. So there should be solutions for the first half of the year to protect the village from environmental damage and for the second half of the year for financial and economic matters so that lack of the tourists is compensated for residents.
Of other outcomes of this study is that most of the tourists are from different provinces and less foreign tourist, the number of which even reaches a hundred in a year. Job creation is another outcome of tourist attraction which even promotes hand craft making in the area. Due to the arrival of tourists during the past 7 years, more than half of the residents are employed in the service sector, this also can decrease immigrations comparing to other cities. Of other positive effects of tourist attraction is residents' cultural communication and improving government's attention to the area. All mentioned can distinguish Kandovan from other villages. Kandovan village's development in the last decade was due to tourist presence, we can also point out the construction of rock hotel.
Given the theories provided in this research and also a summary of relevant theories mentioned in the chapter on theoretical framework, and comparison of these theories with the results of test of hypothesis, significance of hypotheses were concluded, it can be concluded that there was a direct relationship between hypotheses of this research and theories provided by scholars, and there was no conflict between them and can complement each other
Test of hypotheses:
Hypothesis one: It seems that tourism has an effect on development of Kandovan rural area.
Table 1 – Chi2 test of role of tourism in development of Kandovan rural area
Chi2 test Degrees of freedom P value
48/4 4 01/0
Given the above table, hypothesis one showed significance at chi2 difference value of 4.48 and 4 degrees of freedom and alpha level of smaller than 0.05 and equal to 0.01. This means that tourism has an effect on development of Kandovan rural area, which was consistent with literature. Data analysis using SPSS software, which showed significance of hypothesis one, we found out that the said hypothesis was confirmed.
Hypothesis two: It seems that tourism is a directing factor affecting economy of Kandovan.
Table 2 – Role of tourism in economy of Kandovan rural area
Chi2 test Degrees of freedom P value
95/14 8 04/0
Given the above table, hypothesis one showed significance at chi2 difference value of 14.95 and 8 degrees of freedom and alpha level of smaller than 0.04. This means that tourism has noan effect on development of Kandovan rural area, which was consistent with literature. Data analysis using SPSS software, which showed significance of hypothesis two, we found out that the said hypothesis was confirmed.
Table 3 – Test of reliability of questionnaire
Cronbach’s alpha coefficient Standardized Cronbach’s alpha Number of items
.457 .423 16
Given the results of the study, for calculating reliability of questionnaire, Cronbach’s alpha test was used. Cronbach’s alpha was estimated to be 0.457, which was an average coefficient. This value shows the extent to which the results of questionnaire are reliable and the extent to which the questionnaire can give the same results. None of the items were excluded based on the results of this test