Journal of Environmental Studies (JES) has been published since 1974 as a multidisciplinary journal concerned with all aspects of environment. In pursuit of these, environmental experts are invited to contribute their knowledge and experience. This Journal publishes original research papers, research notes and reviews across the broad field of environment. These include but are not limited to environmental science, environmental engineering, environmental management and planning and environmental design, urban and regional landscape design and natural disaster management. Thus, high quality research papers or reviews dealing with any aspect of environment are welcomed. Papers may be theoretical, interpretative or experimental.