Identifying the Components of the Visual Organization to Improve the Physical Appearance of the Vernacular Landscapes of the Foothill Villages of Iran (Case Study: Foothill Villages in the West of Mazandaran province)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Architecture, Faculty of the Architecture and Urban Engineering Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.


The visual values of vernacular landscapes are one of the most important and influential factors that determine the presence and continuity of residence in rural areas. However, many of the vernacular landscapes of Iran's foothill villages are in an unorganized state owing to interventions and the lack of proper management mechanisms. To manage the process of development and protection of this valuable heritage, it is essential to theoretically develop parameters affecting vernacular landscapes. The present study is exploratory in nature and descriptive-survey in terms of data collection method. The statistical population of the study included 576 residents of the studied villages. They were surveyed in a random network. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software and they were analyzed through exploratory factor analysis, Pearson correlation and regression analysis. The research results showed; 98.1% of physical appearance changes by 14 visual organizing factors including: quality of the path and roads, visual comfort, materials and topography, environmental elements and natural landscape, decorations, renovation of buildings, attractiveness, permeability, vernacular construction pattern, lighting, and spatial flexibility, privacy and zoning, physical elements, building structure and legibility have been explained that the factors of visual comfort and the quality of roads and paths have the greatest impact in improving the physical appearance of the studied villages with an impact factor of 0.203 and 0.181.


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