Experimental investigation on the synthesis and evaluation of the role of biodiesel fuel prepared from Salicornia plant to reduce CO and NOx pollutant emissions in combustion systems

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Gonabad, Gonabad, Iran.

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Gonabad, Gonabad, Iran.


This work explains the optimized synthesis process and preparation of a novel environmentally friend biodiesel from Salicornia as a drought-resistant and saltwater tolerant plant. Also, it presents the comparative results on thermal and emission characteristics due to the application of this biodiesel in a combustion system. For this purpose, after obtaining the Salicornia plant seeds, the effects of the extraction methods on the performance of the oil extraction process were investigated. The results showed that compared to other methods, the ultrasonic probe extraction method achieved the highest oil efficiency. The synthesis of biodiesel from salicornia seed oil was carried out in the presence functionalized nano catalysts during transesterification reaction. The results of gas chromatography revealed a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids and a low percentage of saturated fatty acids in the profile of biodiesel fatty acids. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, the dominant acid was linoleic acid (61%), and among the saturated fatty acids, the dominant acid was palmitic acid (8.4%). Finally, in order to investigate the emission performance of biodiesel, a blend of the synthesized biodiesel with diesel fuel (B10) was prepared and burned by a burner in a laboratory furnace. Then, using a KIGAS 310 gas analyzer, the concentrations CO and NOx pollutant emissions at the outlet of the furnace were measured and compared with diesel fuel. The obtained results showed that compared to diesel fuel the B10 blend fuel reduces the emission of CO and NOx 14% and 34%, respectively.


Main Subjects

Abu-Hamdeh, N. H., Bantan, R. A. R., Alimoradi, A., & Pourhoseini, S. H. (2020). The effect of injection pressure on the thermal performance and emission characteristics of an oil burner operating on B20 palm oil biodiesel-diesel blend fuel. Fuel, 278: 1-8.
Akhani, H. (2006). Biodiversity of halophytic and sabkha ecosystems in Iran. Sabkha ecosystems, Volume II: West and Central Asia, 1-88.
Akhani, H. (2007). Diversity, biogeography, and photosynthetic pathways of Argusia and Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) in South‐West Asia with an analysis of phytogeographical units. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 155(3): 401-25.
Akhani, H., Ghobadnejhad, M., & Hashemi, S. (2003). Ecology, biogeography and pollen morphology of Bienertia cycloptera Bunge ex Boiss. (Chenopodiaceae), an enigmatic C4 plant without Kranz anatomy. Plant Biology, 5(2):167-78.
Al-Hamamre, Z., Sandouqa, A., Al-Saida, B., Shawabkeh, R. A., & Alnaief, M. (2023). Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using heterogeneous KNO3/Oil shale ash catalyst. Renewable Energy, 211: 470-483.
Dehghani, S., & Haghighi, M. (2017). Sono-sulfated zirconia nanocatalyst supported on MCM-41 for biodiesel production from sunflower oil: Influence of ultrasound irradiation power on catalytic properties and performance. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 35: 142–151.
Dos Santos, T., Santos, E.C.S., Dias, J. P., Barreto, J., Stavale, F.L., & Ronconi, C. M. (2019). Reduced graphene oxide as an excellent platform to produce a stable Brønsted acid catalyst for biodiesel production. Fuel, 256: 1–10.
Eganathan, P., SR Subramanian, H. M., Latha, R., & Srinivasa Rao C. (2006). Oil analysis in seeds of Salicornia brachiate. Industrial Crops and Products, 23(2): 177–179.
Fei, L., Ali, F.,  Said, A., Tariq, N.,  Raziq, F.,  Ali, N., Arif, U.,  Akhter, M. S., Rahdar, A., &  Bilal, M. (2023). Surface‑
functionalized spongy zinc ferrite as a robust visible‑light driven nanocatalyst for wastewater remediation: characterization, kinetic, and mechanistic insight. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 20: 1007–1018.
Heidary, R. (2017). Effect of temperature on hydrothermal gasification of paper mill waste, case study: the paper mill in North of Iran. Journal of Environmental Studies, 43(1): 59-71.
Kaya, T., Kutlar, OA., & Taskiran, OO. (2021). Evaluation of the partially premixed compression ignition combustion with diesel and biodiesel blended diesel at part load condition. Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, 24(2): 458-468.
Lani, S. L., Ngadi, N., Haron, S., Inuwa, I. M., & Opotu, L. A. (2024). The catalytic effect of calcium oxide and magnetite loading on magnetically supported calcium oxide-zeolite catalyst for biodiesel production from used cooking oil. Renewable Energy, 222: 119846.
Lim, S., Yap, C. Y., Pang, Y. L., & Wong, K. H. (2020). Biodiesel synthesis from oil palm empty fruit bunch biochar derived heterogeneous solid catalyst using 4-benzenediazonium sulfonate. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 390: 121532.
Maleki Delarestaghi, R., Ghasemzadeh, R., Mirani, M., & Yaghoubzadeh, P. (2018). The comparison between different waste management methods of Tabas city with life cycle assessment assessment. Journal of Environmental Science Studies, 3(3): 782-793.
Mapossa, A. B., Dantas, J., Silva, M. R., Kiminami, R. H. G. A., Costa, A. C. F. M., & Daramola, M. O. (2020). Catalytic performance of NiFe2O4 and Ni0.3Zn0.7Fe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles during biodiesel production. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 13(2): 4462-4476.
Moradkhani, M. A., Hosseini, S. H., Song, M., & Teimoori, K. (2024). Comprehensive data-driven methods for estimating the thermal conductivity of biodiesels and their blends with alcohols and fossil diesels. Renewable Energy, 221: 119849.
Nejatian, N., abbaspour, M., Javidan, P., Nia, M. Y., Shacheri, F., Azizi, H., Yavari Nia, M., Pazoki, A., Pazoki, M., Amiri M. J., & Abbasi, S. (2023). Evaluation of the vulnerability and pathways of groundwater pollution in the Zanjanrud river basin by an integrated modeling approach. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 1-14.
Ni, J., & Meunier, F. C. (2007). Esterification of free fatty acids in sunflower oil over solid acid catalysts using batch and fixed bed-reactors. Applied Catalysis A: General, 333(1): 122–130.
Nozari, A., Hassani, H., & Karimianb, A. (2023). ZnFe2O4@SiO2–SO3H Magnetic Nanoparticles: A New, Efficient, and Recyclable Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst for Successful Synthesis of 5-Substituted-1H-tetrazoles. Russian Journal of Organic Chemistry, 59(8): 1–12.
Pazoki, M., & Ghasemzadeh, R. (2020). Leachate Quality. In: Municipal Landfill Leachate Management. Environmental Science and Engineering. 101-127. Springer, Cham.
Pourhoseini, S. H., Namvar-Mahboub, M., Hosseini, E., & Alimoradi, A. (2021). A comparative exploration of thermal, radiative and pollutant emission characteristics of oil burner flame using palm oil biodiesel-diesel blend fuel and diesel fuel. Energy, 217: 1-10.
Ranjbar, G., Dehghany, F., Pirasteh Anosheh, H., & Pourmoghaddam, M. (2017). Salicornia, Sea water tolerant plant. Publication of agricultural education.
Sebayang, A. H., Ideris, F., Silitonga, A. S., Shamsuddin, A. H, Zamri, M. F. M. A., Pulungan, M. A., Siahaan, S., Alfansury, M., Kusumo, F., & Milano, J. (2023). Optimization of ultrasound-assisted oil extraction from Carica candamarcensis; A potential Oleaginous tropical seed oil for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy, 211: 434-444.
Shi, G., Yu, F., Yan, X., & Li, R. (2017). Synthesis of tetragonal sulfated zirconia via a novel route for biodiesel production. Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology, 45(3): 311–316.
Soleimani Alyar, S., & Yarahmadi, R. (2019). CO removal using single stage plasma- catalytic hybrid process in laboratory scale. Journal of Environmental Studies, 44(11): 721-733.
Tajfar, I., Pazoki, M., Pazoki, A., Nejatian, N., & Amiri, M. (2023). Analysis of Heating Value of Hydro-Char Produced by Hydrothermal Carbonization of Cigarette Butts. Pollution, 9(3): 1273-1280.
Tosun, E., & Özcanl, M. (2021). Hydrogen enrichment effects on performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine operated with diesel-soybean biodiesel blends with nanoparticle addition. Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, 24(3): 648-654.
Vasi´c, K., Podrepšek, G. H., Knez, Ž., & Leitgeb, M. (2020). Biodiesel Production Using Solid Acid Catalysts Based on Metal Oxides. Catalysts, 10(2):237.
Xie, W., & Wang, H. (2020). Immobilized polymeric sulfonated ionic liquid on core-shell structured Fe3O4/SiO2 composites: A magnetically recyclable catalyst for simultaneous transesterification and esterifications of low-cost oils to biodiesel. Renewable Energy, 145: 1709–1719.
Zhang, X., Bai, L., & Esfandani-Bozchaloyi, S. (2022). Population Differentiation and Gene Flow of Salicornia persica Akhani (Chenopodiaceae). International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics, 75(2): 33-43.