Impact assessment of the land use changes on ecosystem services in the metropolitan region of West Tehran

Document Type : Research Paper


Urban and Regional Planning Department, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


This study was conducted to evaluate the consequences of land use changes on the values of ecosystem services in urban areas of the west of Tehran province. For this purpose, first, the land use/cover types of the region in 1985, 2000 and 2015 were classified using the maximum likelihood method, and their changes over time were examined. Then, different types of existing ecosystem services were identified using the theoretical approach presented by Costanza et al. (1997), and their economic value was calculated. Finally, the relationship between factors affecting land use changes and ecosystem service values was analyzed using multiple regression. The results show that, following the reduction of rangelands and agricultural lands, the value of ecosystem services has decreased by 51.2%. Based on the results of the regression analysis, the nine following factors affecting socio-economic development have the greatest impact on reducing the value of ecosystem services in the region, respectively: the increase in the number of roads, number of employees, population, public vehicles, non-agricultural income, value of industrial assets, number of immigrants, size of agricultural plots, and GDP. Therefore, spatial planning measures, such as spatial rules and policies, should be taken in this region to prohibit the expansion of constructed lands in the area of green and natural lands.


Main Subjects

Abdi, N., Madah Arefi, H. & Zahedi Amiri, G. D. (2008). Estimation of carbon sequestration in Astragalus rangelands of Markazi province (Case study: Malmir rangeland in Shazand region). Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 15(2), 269–282.(inPersian).
Agriculture Jahad Organization of Tehran. (2019). Agriculture physiognomy. siteid=4.(inPersian).
Amirnejad, H., Ataie Solout, K. & Zarandian, A. (2018). Determining the economic value of water conservation function by plant coverage of Bamou national park. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 25(1), 216–226.
Anderson, J. R. (1976). A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data (Vol. 964). US Government Printing Office.
Asadolahi, Z. & Salmanmahiny, A. R. (2017). Assessing the impact of land use change on ecosystem services supply (carbon storage and sequestration). Environmental Researches, 8(15), 203–215. 20089597.1396.
Ashournejad, Q., Amiraslani, F., Kiavarz Moghadam, M. & Toomanian, A. (2019). Impacts of Landuse/Landcover Changes on the Ecosystem Service Values in Pars Special Economic Energy Zone Using Remote Sensing. Physical Geography Research Quarterly, 51(2), 317–333.(inPersian).
Baranian Kabir, E., Mousavi,  seyed alireza, Bashari, H., Mosaddeghi, M. & Basiri, M. (2017). Economic Consequences of Converting Rangelands to Dry Farmlands, Focusing on Soil and Water Conservation Services. Iranian Journal of Applied Ecology, 6(2), 27–41. (inPersian).
Bateman, I. J., Harwood, A. R., Mace, G. M., Watson, R. T., Abson, D. J., Andrews, B., Binner, A., Crowe, A., Day, B. H. & Dugdale, S. (2013). Bringing ecosystem services into economic decision-making: land use in the United Kingdom. Science, 341(6141), 45–50.
Brown, G. (2013). The relationship between social values for ecosystem services and global land cover: an empirical analysis. Ecosystem Services, 5, 58–68.
Cabral, P., Feger, C., Levrel, H., Chambolle, M. & Basque, D. (2016). Assessing the impact of land-cover changes on ecosystem services: A first step toward integrative planning in Bordeaux, France. Ecosystem Services, 22, 318–327.
Cai, Y.-B., Zhang, H., Pan, W.-B., Chen, Y.-H. & Wang, X.-R. (2013). Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(6), 5111–5123.
Chen, W., Zeng, Y. & Zeng, J. (2021). Impacts of traffic accessibility on ecosystem services: An integrated spatial approach. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 31, 1816–1836.
Costanza, R., d’Arge, R., De Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O’neill, R. V. & Paruelo, J. (1997). The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature, 387(6630), 253–260.
Costanza, R., Kubiszewski, I., Ervin, D., Bluffstone, R., Boyd, J., Brown, D., Chang, H., Dujon, V., Granek, E., & Polasky, S. (2011). Valuing ecological systems and services. F1000 Biology Reports, 3.
Crossman, N. D., Burkhard, B., Nedkov, S., Willemen, L., Petz, K., Palomo, I., Drakou, E. G., Martín-Lopez, B., McPhearson, T. & Boyanova, K. (2013). A blueprint for mapping and modelling ecosystem services. Ecosystem Services, 4, 4–14.
Cumming, G. S., Buerkert, A., Hoffmann, E. M., Schlecht, E., Von Cramon-Taubadel, S. & Tscharntke, T. (2014). Implications of agricultural transitions and urbanization for ecosystem services. Nature, 515(7525), 50–57.
Dadashpour, H., Kheirodin, R., Yaghobkhani, M. & Chamani, B. (2015). Modeling Tehran land use changes by using the MOLAND Model. Regional Planning, 4(16), 49–64.
De Groot, R., Brander, L., Van Der Ploeg, S., Costanza, R., Bernard, F., Braat, L., Christie, M., Crossman, N., Ghermandi, A. & Hein, L. (2012). Global estimates of the value of ecosystems and their services in monetary units. Ecosystem Services, 1(1), 50–61.
De Groot, R. S., Fisher, B., Christie, M., Aronson, J., Braat, L., Haines-Young, R., Gowdy, J., Maltby, E., Neuville, A. & Polasky, S. (2010). Integrating the ecological and economic dimensions in biodiversity and ecosystem service valuation. In The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB): Ecological and Economic Foundations (pp. 9–40). Earthscan, Routledge.
Deng, X., Huang, J., Rozelle, S., & Uchida, E. (2008). Growth, population and industrialization, and urban land expansion of China. Journal of Urban Economics, 63(1), 96–115.
Estoque, R. C., & Murayama, Y. (2013). Landscape pattern and ecosystem service value changes: Implications for environmental sustainability planning for the rapidly urbanizing summer capital of the Philippines. Landscape and Urban Planning, 116, 60–72.
Fu, B., Li, Y., Wang, Y., Zhang, B., Yin, S., Zhu, H., & Xing, Z. (2016). Evaluation of ecosystem service value of riparian zone using land use data from 1986 to 2012. Ecological Indicators, 69, 873–881. j.ecolind. 2016.05.048
Gashaw, T., Tulu, T., Argaw, M., Worqlul, A. W., Tolessa, T., & Kindu, M. (2018). Estimating the impacts of land use/land cover changes on Ecosystem Service Values: The case of the Andassa watershed in the Upper Blue Nile basin of Ethiopia. Ecosystem Services, 31, 219–228.
Geneletti, D. (2012). Integrating ecosystem services in land use planning: Concepts and applications. Center for International Development at Harvard University.
Golchoobidiva, S., & Nasehi, S. (2016, May). Investigating the appearance of urban land to improve the environmental quality of cities. Paper presented at the Second International Congress of Earth Sciences and Urban Development, Tabriz, Iran.
Goldstein, J. H., Caldarone, G., Duarte, T. K., Ennaanay, D., Hannahs, N., Mendoza, G., Polasky, S., Wolny, S., & Daily, G. C. (2012). Integrating ecosystem-service tradeoffs into land-use decisions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(19), 7565–7570.
Hosseini, S., Amirnejad, H., & Oladi, J. (2017). Determination of the Non-Market Values of Functions and Services of the National Park Kiasar. Iranian Journal Of Economic Research, 22(72), 79–102. ijer. 2017.8292.(inPersian).
Interior, M. (2014). Country divisions.(inPersian).
Iran Statistical Centre. (2016). Population and Housing Census. Censuses.(inPersian).
Jahandari, J., Hejazi, R., Jozi, S. A., & Moradi, A. (2022). Impacts of urban expansion on spatio-temporal patterns of carbon storage ecosystem services in Bandar Abbas Watershed using InVEST software. Water and Soil Management and Modeling, 2(4), 91–106. (inPersian).
Ji, Y., Wang, L., Qu, Y., & Ma, P. (2023). The Impact of Land Use Change on The Ecosystem Service Value of The Agricultural Pastoral Ecotone: Taking Jishishan County as an example. Academic Journal of Science and Technology, 6(2), 1–5.
Khorramdel, S., Moghaddam, P. R., & Ghafori, A. A. (2018). Economic evaluation of agroecosystem services of saffron in Khorasan Razavi province. Saffron Agronomy and Technology, 6(1), 73–89.(inPersian).
Kumar, P. (2010). The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: ecological and economic foundations. UNEP/Earthprint.
Lee, Y.-C., Ahern, J., & Yeh, C.-T. (2015). Ecosystem services in peri-urban landscapes: The effects of agricultural landscape change on ecosystem services in Taiwan’s western coastal plain. Landscape and Urban Planning, 139, 137–148.
Li, S., Zhang, Y., Wang, Z., & Li, L. (2018). Mapping human influence intensity in the Tibetan Plateau for conservation of ecological service functions. Ecosystem Services, 30, 276–286.
Li, X., Zhou, W., & Ouyang, Z. (2013). Forty years of urban expansion in Beijing: what is the relative importance of physical, socioeconomic, and neighborhood factors? Applied Geography, 38, 1–10.
Mahlouji Rad, M., Mobarghaei, N., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Parsa, M., Shahnoushi Froshani, N., & Asadi, G. (2016). Comparison of value of ecosystem services in conventional and Wheat and Potato organic farms in Fariman city. Journal of Agroecology [Online], 6(1), 151–165.(inPersian).
Mamat, A., Halik, Ü., & Rouzi, A. (2018). Variations of ecosystem service value in response to land-use change in the Kashgar Region, Northwest China. Sustainability, 10(1), 200.
Ministry of Roads & Urban Development. (2009). Project of Tehran province.(inPersian).
Mitchell, M. G. E., Bennett, E. M., & Gonzalez, A. (2015). Strong and nonlinear effects of fragmentation on ecosystem service provision at multiple scales. Environmental Research Letters, 10(9), 094014.
Mousavi, S. A., & Arzani, H. (2014). Economic valuation of water regulation function by central Alborz rangeland ecosystems. Iranian Journal of Ecohydrology, 1(1), 11–16.(inPersian).
Müller, F., & Burkhard, B. (2012). The indicator side of ecosystem services. Ecosystem Services, 1(1), 26–30.
National cartographic centre. (1395). Topographic maps.
Natural Resources Organization. (2016). Ministry of Agriculture-Jahad.
Nouri Najafi, F., Veisi, H., & Mirzaee, R. (2018). Changes in land use and ecosystem services in Sahand dam using remote sensing technique. Environmental Sciences, 16(1), 207–224. (inPersian).
Polzin, S. E. (1999). Transportation/land-use relationship: Public transit’s impact on land use. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 125(4), 135–151.
Pour Ahmad, A., Seifoddini, F., & Parnoon, Z. (2011). The Role of Migration in Change of Islamshahr Land Use. Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development, 4(6), 49–61.(inPersian).
Quesada, B., Devaraju, N., de Noblet‐Ducoudré, N., & Arneth, A. (2017). Reduction of monsoon rainfall in response to past and future land use and land cover changes. Geophysical Research Letters, 44(2), 1041–1050.
Rahimi Balkanlou, K., Panahi  Fatemeh, Jafary, M., & Malekian, A. (2021). Investigating Ecosystem Services Provision Dynamics under Landuse/landcover Changes in the Lake Urmia Basin. Irrigation and Water Engineering, 12(2), 414–429.
Raoufi, M., Kouchaki, A., & Nasiri Mahalati, M. (2024). Assessment the trend of changes in ecosystem services by monitoring land use changes in North and Northeast of Iran. Journal of Agroecology, online pub.
Rezaee, M. E., Barmaki, M., & Veisi, H. (2020). Land Use Changes and Their Effects on the Value of Ecosystem Services in Hamadan- Bahar Plain: With Emphasis on Semi-Natural Areas. Environment and Development, 10(20), 25–34.
Sajjadi Ghaemmaghami, S. A., Sayahnia, R., Mobarghei Dinan, N., & Makhdoum Farkhondeh, M. (2021). Evaluating the implications of urban growth on carbon fixation ecosystem services (Case study: Karaj Subcatchments). Journal of RS and GIS for Natural Resources, 12(1), 20–37. (inPersian).
Schägner, J. P., Brander, L., Maes, J., & Hartje, V. (2013). Mapping ecosystem services’ values: Current practice and future prospects. Ecosystem Services, 4, 33–46.
Shabani, N., & Kamyab, H. (2019). The impact of land use/land cover change on ecosystem services in Golestan province. Environmental Sciences, 17(2), 43–56. (inPersian).
Statistical yearbook of Tehran province. (2016). ViewSearch/ CustomFieldIDs/635/SearchValues/1395/PropertyTypeID/2086. (inPersian).
Tahmasebi, G., & Pourgharai,  hossein. (2000). The role of honeybee in pollination and agricultural production increase. Agricultural Economy and Development, 8(30), 131–144.(inPersian).
Tianhong, L., Wenkai, L., & Zhenghan, Q. (2010). Variations in ecosystem service value in response to land use changes in Shenzhen. Ecological Economics, 69(7), 1427–1435.
Wu, K., Ye, X., Qi, Z., & Zhang, H. (2013). Impacts of land use/land cover change and socioeconomic development on regional ecosystem services: The case of fast-growing Hangzhou metropolitan area, China. Cities, 31, 276–284.
Wu, K., & Zhang, H. (2012). Land use dynamics, built-up land expansion patterns, and driving forces analysis of the fast-growing Hangzhou metropolitan area, eastern China (1978–2008). Applied Geography, 34, 137–145.
Yegane, H., Rafiee, H., Iraj, S., & Bazgir, A. (2016). Estimating the recreational value of Taham watershed rangelands in Zanjan by using a contingent valuation method. Agricultural Economics, 9(4), 151–175. (inPersian).
Zang, S., Wu, C., Liu, H., & Na, X. (2011). Impact of urbanization on natural ecosystem service values: a comparative study. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 179(1–4), 575–588.