Investigation of Air Pollution in Tehran According Wind And Precipitation Conditions

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Geography, Faculty of Humanity & Social Science, University Of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran

2 Department of geography and urban planning, faculty of humanities and social sciences university of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran


To investigate the role of wind and precipitation on air pollution in the metropolis of Tehran, daily NO2 data from the Sentinel satellite and daily wind and precipitation data from Mehrabad station from August 1, 2018, to December 31, 2021, were used. To examine the relationship between precipitation and wind data with air pollution, the correlation method and the existence of significant differences in air pollution in different conditions, t-test was used. The results showed the variance and mean NO2 of rainy days and days without rainfall were not equal and on rainy days the amount of air pollution was reduced by 31.06%. The average air pollution on rainy days is less than on days without rainfall, but no specific pattern was observed between the amount of rainfall and the reduction of air pollution. The results showed that increasing the wind speed to 2.5 m / s will reduce air pollution, but higher speeds will not necessarily reduce pollution further. The variance and mean NO2 are not equal on windy days of more than 2.5 meters per second. At speeds of more than 2.5 meters per second, the amount of air pollution is reduced by 59.25% with 99% confidence. The results show that the effect of wind in reducing air pollution in Tehran is more than rainfall and shows a more distinct pattern of air pollution.


  1. Afarideh, F. Ramasht, M. Mortyn, P. (2022). Temporal-spatial analysis of air quality index in Tehran during the period of 10 years. Physical Geography Research Quarterly, 53(4), 447-463.
  2. Ahmadi, H., Ahmadi, T., Shahmoradi, B., Mohammadi, S., Kohzadi, S. (2015). The effect of climatic parameters on air pollution in Sanandaj, Iran. Journal of Advances in Environmental Health Research, 3(1), 49-61. doi: 10.22102/jaehr.2015.40185.
  3. Akbari, E. Fakheri, M. Pourgholamhasan, E. Akbari, Z. (2015). Monthly Zoning of the Air Pollution and Surveying its Relationship with Climatic Factors (Case Study: Mashhad City).Journal of Natural Environment, 68(4), 533-547.
  4. Akbary, M. Kermani, A. & Alijani, B. (2018). Simulation and Analysis of Polluted Days in Tehran. International Journal of Environmental Research, 12(1), 67–75.
  5. Akpinar, E. K. Akpinar, S. & Öztop, H. F. (2009). Statistical analysis of meteorological factors and air pollution at winter months in elaziǧ Turkey. Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering, 3(1), 7–16.
  6. Ashrafi, K. (2012). Determining of spatial distribution patterns and temporal trends of an air pollutant using proper orthogonal decomposition basis functions. Atmospheric Environment, 47, 468-476.
  7. Ashrafi, K. Ahmadi Orkomi, A. (2014). Atmospheric stability analysis and its correlation with the concentration of air pollutants: A case study of a critical air pollution episode in Tehran. Iranian Journal of Geophysics, 8(3).
  8. Cuhadaroglu, B. & Demirci, E. (1997). Influence of some meteorological factors on air pollution in Trabzon city. Energy and Buildings, 25(3), 179–184.
  9. de Vries, J. Voors, R. Ording, B. Dingjan, J. Veefkind, P. Ludewig, A. & Aben, I. (2016, August). TROPOMI on ESA’s Sentinel 5p ready for launch and use. In Fourth international conference on remote sensing and geoinformation of the environment (RSCy2016) (Vol. 9688, p. 96880B). International Society for Optics and Photonics.
  10. Feng, X. Wei, S. & Wang, S. (2020). Science of the Total Environment Temperature inversions in the atmospheric boundary layer and lower troposphere over the Sichuan Basin, China : Climatology and impacts on air pollution. Science of the Total Environment, 726, 138579.
  11. Gastwirth, J. L. Gel, Y. R. & Miao, W. (2009). The Impact of Levene’s Test of Equality of Variances on Statistical Theory and Practice. Statistical Science, 24(3), 343–360.
  12. Ghannadi, M., Shahri, M., Moradi, A. (2022). Air pollution monitoring using Sentinel-5 (Case study: Big industrial cities of Iran). Environmental Sciences, 20(2).
  13. Gharibi S, Shayesteh K. 2021Application of Sentinel 5 satellite imagery in identifying air pollutants Hotspots in Iran. Journal of Spatial Analysis Environmental Hazards. jsaeh. 8 (3):123-138
  14. Habeebullah, M. (2013) An Investigation of the Effects of Meteorology on Air Pollution in Makkah. Assiut University bulletins Environmental Researches, 16, 64-85.
  15. Heger, M. & Sarraf, M. (2018). Air pollution in Tehran: Health costs, sources, and policies. World Bank.
  16. Hoque, M. M. Ashraf, Z. Kabir, H. Sarker, E. & Nasrin, S. (2020). Meteorological influences on seasonal variations of air pollutants (SO2, NO2, O3, CO, PM2. 5 and PM10) in the Dhaka Megacity. J. Pure Appl. Biosci, 2, 15–23.
  19. Ialongo, I., Virta, H., Eskes, H., Hovila, J., & Douros, J. (2020). Comparison of TROPOMI/Sentinel-5 Precursor NO 2 observations with ground-based measurements in Helsinki. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 13(1), 205-218.
  20. Judd, L. M., Al-Saadi, J. A., Szykman, J. J., Valin, L. C., Janz, S. J., Kowalewski, M. G., ... & Williams, D. (2020). Evaluating Sentinel-5P TROPOMI tropospheric NO 2 column densities with airborne and Pandora spectrometers near New York City and Long Island Sound.Atmospheric measurement techniques, 13(11), 6113-6140.
  21. Leili M, Bahrami Asl F, Hesam M, Molamahmoudi M, Salahshour Arian S. Estimation of Diseases and Mortality Attibuted to Atmospheric NO2 and SO2 Using AirQ Model in Hamadan City, Iran. Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2017; 23 (4):314-322.
  22. Liu, Y. Zhou, Y. & Lu, J. (2020). Exploring the relationship between air pollution and meteorological conditions in China under environmental governance. Scientific Reports, 1–11.
  23. Popek, R. Haynes, A. Przybysz, A. & Robinson, S. A. (2019). How much does weather matter? Effects of rain and wind on PM accumulation by four species of Australian native trees. Atmosphere, 10(10), 633.
  24. Pourtaheri, M. (2013). Applied statistical analysis in geographical sciences (1st edition). Ghomes.
  25. Rangzan K, Kabolizadeh M, Mohammadi S. Assessment of Spatiotemporal Changes of NO2 Using TROPOMI Sensor in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Journal of health system research HSR. 2021; 17 (2) :87-96.
  26. Rigby, M. & Toumi, R. (2008). London air pollution climatology: Indirect evidence for urban boundary layer height and wind speed enhancement. Atmospheric Environment, 42(20), 4932–4947.
  27. Shahbazi H, Hosseini V, Torbatian S, Hamedi M. Assessment of Emission Reduction Scenarios with a Focus on the Impact of Vehicle Fleets on Tehran Air Quality: Case Study. Transportation Research Record. 2019;2673(5):197-207.
  28. Shamsipour, A. Ashrafi, E. Alikhah asl, M. Ashrafi, K. (2016). Modeling the distribution of suspended particles in the south of Tehran by the model of AERMOD, (A Case Study of Tehran cement factory). Journal of Environmental Studies, 41(4), 799-814.
  29. Shamsipour, A., Hosseinpour, Z., Najibzadeh, F. (2012). Synoptic Analysis and Thermodynamic Modeling for Air Pollution of PM10 in Tehran. Journal of Climate Research, 1391(12), 77-95.
  30. Shariepour, Z. Aliakbari Bidokhti, A. (2014). An Investigation on the Status of Troposphere NO2 Over Iran During 2004 to 2012. Journal of Environmental Studies, 40(1), 65-78.
  31. Shojaaddini, M., Moosavian, A., Yousefi Siahkalroodi, S. (2020). Comparison of the Effect of Social Restrictions on Covid-19 pandemic on Nitrogen Dioxide Pollutant in Five Wildlife Refuges and their Large Neighboring Cities in Iran. Journal of Animal Environment, 12(3), 449-456.
  32. Sohrabinia, M. & Khorshiddoust, A. M. (2007). Application of satellite data and GIS in studying air pollutants in Tehran. Habitat International, 31(2), 268–275.
  33. Tomasi, C. Fuzzi, S. & Kim, G. R. (2017). Atmospheric Aerosols Life Cycles and Effects on Air Quality and Climate.
  34. Vafa-Arani, H. Jahani, S. Dashti, H. Heydari, J. & Moazen, S. (2014). A system dynamics modeling for urban air pollution: A case study of Tehran, Iran. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 31, 21-36.
  35. Vallero, D. (2014). Fundamentals of air pollution, fifth edition. Fundamentals of Air Pollution, Fifth Edition.
  36. Van Geffen, J., Boersma, K. F., Eskes, H., Sneep, M., Ter Linden, M., Zara, M., & Veefkind, J. P. (2020). S5P TROPOMI NO 2 slant column retrieval: Method, stability, uncertainties and comparisons with OMI. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 13(3), 1315-1335.
  37. Yang, J. & Fu, X. (2020). The centre of city: Wind environment and spatial morphology. The Centre of City: Wind Environment and Spatial Morphology.