Developing Strategies for Landfill Landscape Environmental Design Through Ecological Approach, the Case of Landfill Adjacent to Talar River-Ghaemshahr

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Environmental design, School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


as a result of population growth and urbanization, ecosystems are changing from the landscape to the global scales. Human activities cause these changes and threaten many ecological services that are essential to society. Landfill is one of the destructive cases of lands which is widely used for waste disposal, especially municipal solid waste. Land degradation. due to human mismanagement is affecting the environment and ecosystem around the world and has been neglected for decades. The environment and public health are at risk due to exposure to landfill gases. The surface and groundwater can be also contaminated by landfill leachate. Considering the ecology as the basis for sustainable design, we can significantly reduce the environmental impact of everything we build. Ecological design is a method of design that puts man-made in a healthy relationship with the natural environment and biosphere, in a way that causes the least damage and danger to the ecosystem. Ecological design theories support the principles and strategies for creating sustainable landscapes. An increasing number of research and articles are devoted to technologies and environmental design strategies. The main purpose of this study is to provide strategies and solutions for designing and organizing the landfill environment with an ecological approach, so that the proposed design can be accompanied by the natural structure of the environment for minimum intervention, using ecological knowledge, which seeks and establishes maximum similarity with nature.
Materials and Methods
In this research, landfill site selection, site analysis and design strategies were identified based on ecological design framework. Ecological design is a method based on comprehensive recognition of the shaping layers of the environment and studying their interaction with each other. These are achieved through making decisions in a way to minimize the harmful effects of human activities on the environment by combining development processes with biological processes. In the end, the result of this work is the reduction of least harmful effects on the natural environment by integrating all processes, cycles and living patterns. In this chapter then, the effects of landfills on the natural environment were first investigated and the ecosystem of the area was identified before its getting polluted and prior to its destruction. Then, after reviewing the theoretical literature, the area was recognized, analyzed and evaluated, and the influential factors in the landfill and its effects were discussed. Then, using the Iranian matrix analysis method was used to evaluate the ecological impact, an attempt is made to improve the current situation. Necessary maps, drawings and documents were prepared for deep site analysis. Opportunities and threats were examined in the landfill and its surrounding areas including urban neighborhood and rural settlements. The landfill leachate on the soil and groundwater discharge. Finally, using overlay method, the synthesis of identification and analyses led to the planning and ecological design strategies of Ghaemshahr Talar landfill, which were applied to selected area to prevent pollutions at the macro level and to help grow and improve the ecosystem services and ecological entity of the area.
Discussion of Results
Considering the environmental impact assessment using the Iranian matrix method as a tool to predict the consequences of landfill on environmental components, the current situation of this landfill is far from the set standards and inconsistent with these rules and criteria. The purpose of the criteria is to minimize the risk to public health in the area and also to reduce the negative effects of the landfill on the surrounding environment and downstream settlements. The current condition of Ghaemshahr landfill, according to the studies, indicates the occurrence of environmental and health hazards for the ecosystem of this region. One of the most important negative effects of this landfill is the pollution of water, soil and air in the physical dimension. The biological factors are also affected by air, water and soil pollution and has a devastating effect on plants and animals and habitat living systems. According to the analyses, as well as the possibilities and limitations of the site, the zoning strategies were developed and applied to achieve the main design goals. Developed Programs related to landfill design must be environmentally friendly. In clearer terms, appropriate use of nature with minimum degradation as well as, reuse of recyclable materials. According to the design strategies and planning, design solutions are implied to reduce pollution and mitigate the environmental hazards caused by the site. These were considered with regard to the previous features of the site. These solutions are in the field of waste management system, vegetation and green space, treatment, water cycles and movement, paths and routes for pedestrian and car traffic, and the most important of them include turning the linear system into a circular process by constructing a compost and MRF plant, biogas collection and treatment by installing gas collection wells, Leachate collection and treatment systems by installing an impermeable wall to prevent leakage from the landfill to the surrounding area; and collect it in leachate collection wells and treat them with phytoremediation of consttructed wetlands.The river water treatment is feasible by using floating islands of phytoremediation, slope stabilization using geocell with seeded soil; and with resistant and aromatic plants, to manage the side front of the landfill, collection of surface water with hydraulic protective layer and pipes for collection and draining surface water.
Applying the ecological design pattern and its principles in combination with aesthetics can also maintain the ecological function of the site, be responsive to the different needs of the community along with foresight and at the same time create human relation with nature. It provides the health of society, the survival and satisfaction of this environment and its ecological conditions for the future, and to achieve the goals of sustainable urban development. Regenerative design strategies are used to turn Talar landfill site into a living system that provides comprehensive ecological services that include: food and energy production, water treatment and habitat creation that are combined educationally and aesthetically. These will ultimately lead to improve the environmental and ecological conditions of the landfill and this space to become more useful for recreation places for different groups. It is also a place to show green technologies in waste management, and finally, such frameworks and solutions can help restore the landfill to an environment-friendly space and also restore it to its natural structure in this area.
Key Words:Environment and landscape design,landfill ecological design,Ghaemshahr landfill


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