Analysis of Neighborhoods Spaces Security from the Users Viewpoint, Case Study: Spaces of Historical Context in Bushehr

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Architecture , Faculty of Art and Architecture, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran

2 Department of Architecture , Faculty of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran


The World Human Settlement Report (2007) published by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, examines many of the most challenging safety and security threats to urban dwellers around the world. Between 2007 and 2002, six percent of urban dwellers in developed countries fell victim to crime, the report said. Attention to the issue of urban security is doubly important because looking at the growth of urbanization and increasing urban population, which leads to the mixing and integration of more people in the structure of the city, it is understood that this category is closely related to National security and the cohesion and solidarity of the strata of a society against the internal and external threats that are being formed towards that system.
This study aims to assess and promote a sense of security for users of the historical context of Bushehr. In this regard, the main question of this research is as follows: What is the impact of each of the environmental factors in explaining the security of users of Bushehr historical context? How can the security of these users be improved according to the importance of each factor?

Materials & Methods
In this research, first, by reviewing the valid world texts, the variables that create a sense of security in the users of an urban context have been extracted. In order to convert the table of variables into a questionnaire, the validity and reliability of the questions have been examined. Reliability was confirmed according to the Cronbach's alpha test (0.817) and the validity of the questions was checked through interviews with experts. Then, through a questionnaire, the opinions of users and people familiar with the texture were measured about these variables. Considering that in the exploratory factor analysis model, the sample size should be at least 3 times the number of questions (variables) and considering that 31 variables have been identified to measure environmental security; Therefore, the sample size was considered equal to 100.
After completing the questionnaires, the following data were entered in SPSS software and analyzed using exploratory factor analysis model. The output of the model categorizes and summarizes the variables under a number of homogeneous factors. In the following, the status of each of the four neighborhoods of the historical context of Bushehr city has been determined and analyzed separately according to the factors obtained from the previous stage. The statistical population of the study was the students of the Faculty of Art and Architecture of the Persian Gulf University of Bushehr. Due to their complete familiarity with the desired context, 100 of them were randomly selected and completed the questionnaires.

Discussion of Results
After extracting information from the questionnaires and entering them in SPSS software, the initial information matrix was formed. This matrix consists of 100 rows (each row per questionnaire) and 32 columns (31 columns per 31 variables and one column for the general question). According to the obtained model, the numerical value of all variables in the subscription table was more than 0.4, which indicates the appropriateness of the explanatory power of the model and the value of KMO statistics. The numerical value of KMO test in this study was 0.737, which means that the existing correlation between the data will be suitable for data analysis. The next output is the Bartlett test, the value of which is acceptable (significance level, 0.000Sig =). Also, Cronbach's alpha value is more than 0.7, which confirms the reliability of the questionnaire.
After controlling and appropriateness of statistical tests, which test and measure the raw data for use in factor analysis, the preliminary matrix is calculated. Finally, 9 factors were identified as factors explaining the environmental security of the historical context of Bushehr. Finally, the total cumulative variance of these 9 extractive factors is equal to 64.29, which means that in total more than 64% of the environmental security explain the historical context of Bushehr, which is an acceptable statistic. At this stage, after determining the variance of each of the factors explaining environmental security, the factor matrix is rotated to get each of the relevant variables to be most relevant to the nine factors and the conditions for naming and identification Facilitate factors.
After naming the factors, it is time to calculate the score of each of the four neighborhoods of the historical context of Bushehr city separately for the nine factors of environmental security. Therefore, the score of each of the 9 factors for each neighborhood is calculated and multiplied by the percentage of variance explaining each factor. Findings show that in the study area, the desirability of environmental security quality was related to Behbahani, Kooti, Shanbadi and Dehshti neighborhoods, respectively. Also, the research proposal for the priority of intervention in the terrified and shabni neighborhoods is related to the factor of social behaviors, for Behbahani neighborhood is related to the factor of territorialism and for Kooti neighborhood is related to the factor of official supervision.

The growth and expansion of urbanization, along with all the benefits it has brought to city dwellers, has also brought challenges. One of these challenges is safety and security. The economic and social problems of households and the increasing psychological pressures on individuals have paved the way for the spread of social anomalies in urban areas. Meanwhile, neighborhoods and urban spaces that are the bedrock of the presence of different groups of people are subject to adversity and conflict of interest, part of which is influenced by the characteristics of the environment. The impact of the environment on behavior is a topic that has entered the theories of architecture and urban planning over the past decades, and theories such as "observer eyes", "defensible spaces", "broken windows", "crime prevention through Environmental design "and ... are among them. Among these, historical contexts and unhealthy urban neighborhoods are among the urban areas that are always facing problems in terms of environmental security, mainly due to the weak economic, social and physical structure. Therefore, in the present study, environmental security variables in the historical context of Bushehr were evaluated. The purpose of this study was to identify the main factors explaining environmental security and analyze the situation of the studied areas.
The results of the study show that 9 factors affect the environmental security of urban neighborhoods, which are the factors of "social behavior", "management and maintenance", "survival of residents", "formal supervision", "informal supervision", "territorialism", "respectively. "Greenery of the environment", "demarcation of areas" and "economic power of the people" have the most impact. Also, regarding 4 neighborhoods located in the historical context of Bushehr, Behbahani neighborhood had the best situation and Deheshti neighborhood had the lowest situation.
Other detailed results are as follows:
- The most differences in neighborhoods are due to social behaviors, which are associated with severe weakness in terrified and sunny neighborhoods, and the situation is more favorable for Behbahani and Kooti neighborhoods.
- The least difference (most homogeneity) of neighborhoods was in the two factors of informal monitoring and demarcation of areas.
- The most important intervention priorities for Dehshti neighborhood are focused on two factors: social behaviors and territorialism.
- The most important intervention priorities for Shanbady neighborhood are focused on two factors: social behaviors and demarcation of areas.
- The most important intervention priorities for Behbahani neighborhood are focused on the agent of territorialism.
- The most important intervention priorities for Kooti neighborhood are focused on the two factors of formal supervision and economic power of the residents.


الیاس‌‌زاده‌‌مقدم، س. ن؛ ضابطیان، ا، (1389). بررسی شاخص‌‌های برنامه‌‌ریزی شهری موثر در ارتقای امنیت زنان در فضاهای عمومی با رویکرد مشارکتی، نشریه هنرهای زیبا، شماره 44، صص 56-43.
ایزدی، م. س؛ حقی، م. ر، (1394). ارتقای احساس امنیت در فضاهای عمومی با بهره گیری از طراحی شهری نمونه مطالعه: میدان امام شهر همدان، نشریه هنرهای زیبا- معماری و شهرسازی، دوره 20، شماره 2، صص 12-5.
بمانیان، م. ر؛ محمودی نژاد، ه، (1388). امنیت و طراحی شهری، چاپ اول، انتشارات طحان، تهران.
بهشتی، س. ص؛ مرادی، ر؛ خلیلی دره بنگ، ر، (1399). تبیین جامعه شناختی رابطه‌‌ی احساس امنیت اجتماعی و سلامت اجتماعی، مجله دانشکده بهداشت و انستیتو تحقیقات بهداشتی، دوره ١٨، شماره دوم، صص 188- 173.
جمالی، ر، (1379). بافت قدیم شهر بندری بوشهر، نشریه دانش جغرافیا، سال اول، شماره دوم، صص 16-13.
حاتمی، ی؛ ذاکر حقیقی، ک، (1399). تأثیرگذاری فضاهای کالبدی بر احساس امنیت اجتماعی در محلات شهری. مطالعۀ موردی: شهر همدان، نشریه آمایش جغرافیایی فضا، شماره 36، صص 217-197.
حیدرزاده، ا؛ حقی، م. ر، (آذر 1397). درآمدی بر سیر تکوینی پیشگیری از جرم در طراحی محیطی، کنفرانس بین المللی عمران، معماری و مدیریت توسعه شهری در ایران، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
رنجبر، ا، (1391). در جستجوی رمز پایداری میادین شهری در بافت تاریخی بوشهر، رساله دکتری تخصصی معماری، استاد راهنما: محمدرضا پورجعفر، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.
سجادیان، ن؛ اورکی، پ؛ نعمتی، م، (1395). بررسی احساس امنیت اجتماعی و عوامل مؤثر بر آن (نمونه موردی: شهر ایذه)، نشریه جغرافیا و توسعه فضای شهری، سال سوم، شماره2، صص 105-87.
عبدالهی، ع. ا؛ صنمی، ا، (1399). ارزیابی مولّفه های موثر بر امنیت فضاهای عمومی شهری و تلاش جهت ارتقای آنها (مطالعۀ موردی: پاک بعثت شیراز)، نشریه جغرافیای اجتماعی شهری، شماره 16، صص 232-212.
عسگری تفرشی، ح؛ ادیب‌‌زاده، ب؛ رفیعیان، م؛ حسینی، ا، (1389). بررسی عوامل محیطی موثر در نوسازی بافت‌‌های فرسوده شهری به منظور افزایش امنیت محلی، نشریه هویت شهر، شماره 6، صص 50-39.
محسنی‌‌تبریزی، ع. ر؛ قهرمانی، س؛ یاهک، س، (1390). فضاهای بی‌‌دفاع شهری و خشونت مطالعه موردی فضاهای بی‌‌دفاع شهر تهران، نشریه جامعه‌‌شناسی کاربردی، شماره 44، صص 70-51.
مدیری، آ، (1385). جرم، خشونت و احساس امنیت در فضاهای عمومی شهر، فصلنامه رفاه اجتماعی، سال ششم، شماره 22، صص 28-11.
منتظر الحجه، م.؛ شریف نژاد، م.؛ رجبی، م، (1397). سنجش عوامل کالبدی مؤثر بر حس امنیت در فضاهای شهری از دیدگاه سالمندان (مورد پژوهی: میدان خان یزد)، نشریه معماری و شهرسازی ایران، دوره 9، شماره 15، صص 105-91.
هدایت، ا؛ طبائیان، س. م، (1391). بررسی عناصر شکل دهنده و دلایل وجودی آن‌‌ها در خانه‌‌های بافت تاریخی بوشهر، نشریه شهر و معماری بومی، شماره 3، صص 54-35.
Anderson, J. M., MacDonald, J. M., Bluthenthal, R., & Ashwood, J. S. (2012). Reducing crime by shaping the built environment with zoning: An empirical study of Los Angeles, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 161, 699–756.
Azevedo, V., Sani, A., M. Nunes, L., & Paulo, D. (2021). Do you Feel Safe in the Urban Space? From Perceptions to Associated Variables, Anuario de Psicología Jurídica, 31(1), 75-84.
Beeler, J. N. (2011). Security Planning for Public Spaces: testing a proposed CPTED rating instrument in Berlin, Germany, A thesis for master of arts in urban and regional planning, university of Florida.
Chang, D. (2011). Social crime or spatial crime? Exploring the effects of social, economical, and spatial factors on burglary rates, Environment and behavior, 43(1), 26-52.
Covington, J., & Taylor, R. (1991). Fear of Crime in Urban Residential Neighborhoods: Implications of Between- and Within-Neighborhood Sources for Current Models, The Sociological Quarterly, 32(2), 231-249.
Cozens, P. M., Saville, G., & Hillier, D. (2005). Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED): a review and modern bibliography, Property Management, 23, 328-356.
Di Bella, E., Corsi, M., Leporatti, L., & Persico, L. (2015). The spatial configuration of urban crime environments and statistical modeling, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 44(4), 1-21.
Glasson, J., & Cozens, P. (2011). Making communities safer from crime: An undervalued element in impact assessment, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 31, 25-35.
Greene, M., & Greene, R. (2003). Urban safety in residential areas Global spatial impact and local self-organizing processes, 4th International Space Syntax Symposium London, 52, 1-8.
He, L., Páez, A., & Liu, D. (2017). Built environment and violent crime: An environmental audit approach using Google Street View, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 66, 83-95.
Hedayati, M., Massoomeh, A., Aldrin, A., Razak, N., & Maghsoodi Tilaki, M. J. (2012). The influence of crime prevention through environmental design on victimization and fear of crime, Environmental Psychology, 32, 79-88.
Kamalipour, H., Faizi, M., & Memarian,Gh. (2014). Safe Place by Design: Urban Crime in Relation to Spatiality and Sociality, Current Urban Studies, 2, 152-162.
Hoon, K. (2003). Crime Prevention through Environmental Design Guidebook, National Crime Prevention Council.
Lee, J., Park, S. & Jung, S. (2016). Effect of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) Measures on Active Living and Fear of Crime, Sustainability, 8, 1-16.
Abdulla, Kh., Abdelmonem, M. G., & Selim, G. (2017). Walkability In Historic Urban Spaces: Testing the Safety and Security in Martyrs' Square in Tripoli, Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, 11(3), 163-177.
Mahrous, A., M. Moustafa, Y., & A. Abou El-Ela, M. (2018). Physical characteristics and perceived security in urban parks: Investigation in the Egyptian context, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 9, 3055–3066.
Kochel, T., & Nouri, S. (2020). Drivers of perceived safety: do they differ in contexts where violence and police saturation feel ‘normal’?, JOURNAL OF CRIME AND JUSTICE, /10.1080/ 0735648X. 2020.1835693.
Sayafzadeh, A., & Hassani, M. J. (2014). The effects of land use in urban crime commitment in the unofficial settlement of Islam Abad, Zanjan, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4(1), 474-489.
Shach-pinsly, D. (2019). Measuring security in the built environment: Evaluating urban vulnerability in a human-scale urban form, Landscape and Urban Planning,  191, 1-12.
Sypion-Dutkowska, N. & Leitner, M. (2017). Land Use Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Urban Crime: A Case Study of Szczecin, Poland, ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 6(74), 1-23.
Weijs-perree, M., Dane, G., & van den Berg, P. (2020). Analyzing the Relationships between Citizens’ Emotions and their Momentary Satisfaction in Urban Public Spaces, Sustainability, 12, 1-20.
Wilcox, P., Quisenberry, N. & Jones, Sh. (2003). The Built Environment and Community Crime Risk Interpretation, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40(3), 322-345.
Wu, L., Liu, X., Ye, X., Leipnik, M., Lee, J., & Zhu, X. (2015). Permeability, space syntax, and the patterning of residential burglaries in urban China, Journal of Applied Geography, 60, 261-265
Yavuz, N. & W. Welch, E. (2010). Addressing Fear of Crime in Public Space: Gender Differences in Reaction to Safety Measures in Train Transit, Urban Studies, 47(12), 2491-2515.