Assessing the Level of Citizens' Satisfaction about Urban Environmental Quality (Case Study: Hamedan City)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran


Urban development has been so rapid in the present century that many countries, especially developing countries and the Third World, are witnessing the emergence of many problems in urban societies. These problems that appear in various social, cultural, economic and environmental fields have led to citizens' dissatisfaction with the urban planning and management system. Meanwhile, inequalities in the quality of the environment and access to services in different parts of the city have increased the dissatisfaction of citizens, especially in poor neighborhoods. Therefore, in recent decades, urban planners have focused on issues such as quality of life, bioavailability, environmental quality and, finally, sustainable urban development, seeking to explain ways to improve the quality of citizens' lives.
Considering that the quality of the environment affects the quality of life and the level of satisfaction of individuals, and on the other hand, different social groups have different expectations of the quality of the environment. Therefore, it seems that the opinion of the people in this regard is Acceptable state of the environment. Therefore, the present study has been developed using a questionnaire on the level of satisfaction of inhabitants of the 12th district of Hamedan in terms of environmental quality indices and analyzed.

Materials & Methods
The present study was conducted using descriptive-analytical method based on documentary studies as well as field observation. Theoretical foundations of the research are derived from library studies and the indexes of subject matter are extracted in a table in a documentary form. In the next step, extractive indicators were extracted in the sample and, using factor analysis, the importance of the main factors affecting its environmental quality has been identified. Considering that residents' perceptions about environmental quality are among the most important factors in assessing the quality and performance of neighborhoods, so in this research, based on extractive indexes, a questionnaire based on the five spectrum Likert has been questioned by residents. The number of questionnaires was valid for SPSS software analysis based on Cochran's sampling test, number 420, each of which was 35 questionnaires.
By completing the questionnaires and entering them in SPSS software, the main factors affecting the quality of the environment were extracted using exploratory factor analysis method. Then, using linear multiple regression analysis method, the relationship between extraction factors and the overall quality of the environment is measured. Finally, by combining the coefficients obtained for factors and variables and considering the average dissatisfaction of people from each variable, the priorities of improving the quality of the environment in the neighborhoods of Hamadan city are determined.

Discussion of Results
After collecting information from the questionnaires and entering them into SPSS software, an initial matrix was compiled. This matrix consists of 420 rows (each row per questionnaire) and 24 columns (23 columns per 23 variables and one column for the general question). According to the obtained model, the numerical value of all variables in the share table was more than 0.4, which indicates the appropriateness of the model's explanatory power and the amount of KMO statistics.
Finally, six factors were identified as the determinants of environmental quality in urban neighborhoods. The specific value of all these extractives is greater than 1. Also, the percentage of variance for the first factor is 16.31, for the second factor is 15.05 and for the third factor is 14.31%. Finally, the aggregate variance of these six extraction factors is 76.44. That is, in total, more than 75% of the environmental quality of Hamadan urban neighborhoods is explained, which is an acceptable statistic.
The first factor explains about 16.31% of the total variance. The variables related to this factor are "Lighting of passages in the night", "abandoned lands", "disturbing and inappropriate workshops", "Security of women and children" and "nightlife". So, this factor be named "Environmental Security".
The second factor explains about 15.05% of the total variance. The variables related to this factor are "attention to the disabled needs", "urban furniture", "quality and safety of sidewalks", "cultural and religious centers" and "monuments Indicators and Indications". So, this factor be named "Walkability".
The third factor explains about 14.31% of the total variance. The variables related to this factor are "health services", "public spaces", "local service and business users" and "educational services". So, this factor be named "Urban Services".
The fourth factor explains about 11.88% of the total variance. The variables related to this factor are "environmental cleanliness and sanitation", "local green spaces" and "disaster risk and lack of safety". So, this factor be named "Natural Environment".
The fifth factor explains about 10.48% of the total variance. The variables related to this factor are "ruined buildings", "defenseless areas" and "inaccessible areas", "the quality of building facades and wall painting," and "access to water, electricity and gas". So, this factor be named "Dwelling & Construction".
The sixth factor explains about 8.41% of the total variance. The variables related to this factor are "road quality and access network" and "traffic cabin and parking". So, this factor be named "Transportation".
After naming the factors, it is time to calculate the score of each of the 12 districts of Hamadan by the factor of 6 factors of environmental quality. Also, in order to calculate the overall score of areas, linear regression analysis (and step-by-step method) has been used. Based on the regression equation for the six factors of the beta coefficient, it determines the weight of the factors in explaining the environmental quality. In the following, multiplied by the "score of each area per agent" in the "relative weight of the factor", the final score of the areas will be obtained from the total environmental factors. In order to more clearly demonstrate the advantages of environmental quality factors in the urban areas of Hamedan, relevant maps have been developed in the ArcGIS software environment as outlined below.

The research findings indicate that the six main factors affect the quality of the environment. These factors and their impact on the level of satisfaction of people from their neighborhood include environmental security (28%), urban services (23%), dwelling & construction (16%), walkability (14%), Transportation (12%) and natural environment (7%). Also, the study of factors in Hamedan indicates average satisfaction of inhabitants from the environmental quality of their neighborhood, which is noticeably different in different regions of the city, which could have a negative impact on the social, cultural and economic fabrication of neighborhoods. In the following, some generalized generalizable outcomes for improving the quality of the urban environment are mentioned:
- Environmental quality is a multifaceted feature that involves various factors. Therefore, it can not be expected that by upgrading a parameter, there is a significant change in the quality of the environment. Prioritizing interventions is, of course, essential to be achieved through initial assessment of the conditions of each neighborhood.
- Promoting environmental quality is ultimately for the satisfaction of residents. Therefore, the use of resident participation is considered as a capacity that should be considered from the beginning of the decision to the time of implementation and maintenance of the project.
- In order to achieve operational and realistic strategies, it is better to consider the scale of small studies. The smaller the study area, the greater the consistency and uniformity of the physical, economic, and social structure, and therefore more accurate results are obtained.
- Promoting environmental quality does not necessarily require much investment. Improving pedestrian safety and environmental security are measures that can be implemented at low cost and with the support of residents.


Main Subjects