Study of Environmental Impacts of Iran Khodro Diesel Factory Using Combined Entropy and LINMAP Method

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor, Department of Environment Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch

2 M.Sc. of Environmental Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Sciences & Research Branch-


The automotive industry is one of the largest industries in the world, which is also very important in our country.According to the World Bank, the automotive industry can be classified as the projects that have environmental impacts. Therefore, the review and analysis of the environmental impacts is conducted to identify the significant effects of pollution caused by the activities of the operation phase, propose reasonable solutions to minimize adverse impacts, and improve the quality of the environment with the aim of ensuring proper and correct implementation of activities in a factory.
With its approximate area of 50 hectares including production, warehouse and building spaces, Iran Khodro Diesel Factory is located at 51 degrees, 81 minutes east and 35 degrees, 37 minutes north, 8 kilometers away from Savehroud, eastern north of Chahardongeh City, one of Islamshar City’s towns. We've placed the production of all kinds of trucks, buses, minibuses and vans with different uses on the agenda; and using the capabilities of more than 5000 efficient workforce in advanced production lines, paint lines, and the active departments of quality, education, engineering, etc, we expect to be able to make the name of Iran proud on the boundaries of domestic and foreign markets with high quality products.
Materials and methods
To analyze the impacts of the factory’s area, the Delphi method was used, in which the questionnaire of the first phase was prepared by the research team.After the questionnaire was developed and finally amended, a Delphi 14-member group was formed, which includes seven environmental specialists and five senior safety experts from the factory, and two environmental specialists of Islam Shahr’s Environmental Protection Agency. Then, the questionnaire of the first phase was distributed among them. The main parameters affecting water, air, noise and particulate matter were identified, and then the experts were asked to rank the impacts of all indicators on the whole environment, the biological environment and the health of individuals, and to express their opinions about its environmental impacts.
As the intended indicators have large dispersion, Entropy method was used to weight the indicators. This method shows the amount of system information that is reflected by the criteria and the extent of uncertainty of the criteria.In other stages of the analysis, all 14 questionnaires were firstly combined together by using the geometric mean, and then a final matrix of 20 columns (indicators) and three rows (environments) was obtained, which is referred to as decision matrix (matrix D).The three environments were prioritized using the LINMAP method.
Analysis and prioritization of indicatorsbased on Entropy method
The studied indicators were analyzed and prioritized using Entropy method, according to which for indicators of water pollution, washing baths weighed 0.318 had the first priority and importance; and in the department of stain removal, it allocated to itself the last priority of water pollution with the weight of 0.044, due to less use of chemicals.The results of this method are given in Table (1).
Table 1: Prioritization of indicators using Entropy method







Washing bath


Stain removal



(skeleton and chassis assembly) -(PVC enclosure and insulation)


Welding point - Stain removal and welding


Particulate matter

Iron washing


mould making



Roll test


mould making


Prioritization and analysis of the studied environments based on LINMAP method
Finally, as shown in Table (2), this result was obtained that the chemical and physical environment has the first priority with a weight of 0.6, and then the biological environment is in the second rank with a weight of 0.38; and social, economic, and cultural environment in the final ranking with a weight of 0.1.
Table 2: The first to third priorities of environments determined by LINMAP method



Chemical and physical environment


Biological environment


Social and economic environment


Chardange town is one of the regions which is affected by the population increase and changing the agricultural applications to other applications and sectors such as industry. The distribution and dispersion of the industrial organizations and complexes in different areas of this town and their locations inside the residential urban regions or around the populated and crowded regions, leads to many environmental effects and results and consequences, and one of these industrial complexes is Iran Khodro Diesel Company.
When we use the evaluation methods, it is important that only one parameter is not taken into account, but the effects of all the parameters and their associated environmental impacts are considered simultaneously.In this study, considering the development of evaluation methods, especially the use of mathematical methods, two Entropy and LINMAP methods - as the latest methods employed used in environmental issues - were used for weighting and prioritization of the environmental parameters and the three affected environments.As each of the above indicators have a relative importance, the weights of the indicators were obtained using the Shannon's Entropy method, in order to show the results of the prioritization in more accurate manner; and to prioritize the options, the LINMAP method was used because of its ability to simultaneously weigh and prioritize indicators.
Finally, this result was obtained that the most important solution to reduce the identified impacts is the creation of an environmental management system based on cleaner production, including the continuous use of a comprehensive environmental strategy for the prevention of pollution in processes, products and services, in order to increase efficiency and reduce risks to humans and the environment.There are three-month periods of monitoring, in which the trusted lab of the factory and the Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for control activities.Environment and HSE Department of the factory is responsible for monitoring and reporting.
In Table (3) the most important environmental effects of the Factory and the plans and activities in order to decreases these bad effects are summarized. The period of these studies and evaluations is a 3-month period and they include the control activities of a reliable laboratory and the Environment Protection Organization. The responsible body for delivering the reports is the environmental sector and HSE of the factory.
Table 3. The Environmental Control Program for pollutants of Iran Khodro Diesel Factory

The control period

Solutions to decrease the effects

Source emissions

Type the sprawling

Environmental influence


-Equipping the factory to long chimneys.
-Use from the absorbent filters inside the chimneys for the poisonous materials and compounds.
-Use from the air pollution control equipments such as vortex collectors, electrostatic precipitants, cyclones, wet dust collection method according to the pollutants
-Removing the out of work conditioners and substituting the new conditioners
-Installation of the special sensors in the saloons in order to alarm in case of leakages more than the normal and allowable limits

Stain removing, metal washing, PVC tank and insulation, human wastes,  roll test, painting bath, structures and assembly of the chassis,


Air Quality

Every six month

، metal washing, PVC tank and insulation, dispersion of the sealer,



-Prevention and supervision on the used material which enter the outlet wastes and wastewaters
-Prevention from leakage of the chemicals and using from safer materials

Stain removing, metal washing, human wastes, roll test, washing bath

BOD، COD، TDS، TOC، ss، pH،TSS، Turbidity, Detergent

Water Quality


-Installation of the big panels and sheets under the welding machines
-Isolation of the chemicals tanks and ensuring from lack of their leakages in the site

Stain removing, metal washing, PVC tank and insulation

Chemicals and Lubricants

Soil Quality


-Insulation the around of the noisy motors and machines
-Construction of barriers around the installed machines which produce many noises
-Removing the vibrations by installation of the Canvas or Glass Wool in the distances between the machines, pipes and attachments

molding, furnace, decorations, roll test, welding, structures and assembly of the chassis

Noise Pollution

Auditory environment


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