Review and Analysis Effective Components the Improvement of Environmental Quality by Techniques Analytic Network Process (Case Study: Saqez City)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran.

2 M.A of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran.


Cities and neighborhoods in Iran couldn’t adjust themselves to quick changes of the recent decades and have lost their quality in many aspects. due to poor planning and governance at the regional and urban design on physical function, rapid growth of large-scale migrations and inefficient policies and procedures in dealing with urban neighborhoods neglected urban neighborhoods as well as constructive role in promoting social identity, economic, physical of urban, neighborhoods problems are somehow unprecedented appearance . Vision of neighborhood sustainable development strengthened new approach of urban problems that return to concept that imagined neighborhoods as cells if urban living. Following, one of the approaches that emerged from increasing urbanization is environmental quality: as an approach that seeking “urban favorable living”. Present research based on share point of two topic: “neighborhood sustainable development” and “environment quality”. Because of deep study this research according residents satisfaction and non-satisfaction of residents’ neighborhood quality. Finally in edition of producing criteria to neighborhood sustainably assessment, proposed the process to the decision makers and managers to priorities action for improving environment quality consistent of sustainable development process. This paper intends to promote the environmental quality and people satisfaction of living in neighborhood by recognizing and prioritizing the main environmental quality factors which have effect on satisfaction of living in neighborhood. Neighborhoods of Saqez is decades was selected for this study.  So, in this paper, the environmental quality of urban in Neighborhoods of Saqez City was evaluated from residents Perspective. In this regard, this study is to pursue the following objectives:
-The evaluation of urban environmental quality of Saqez neighborhoods.
-Identify the affecting factors on quality of urban environment in the neighborhood.
Materials and methods
According to the research objectives and components, the type of this research is practical and the methodology is descriptive- analytical. A survey of 6 neighborhoods in Saqez, according to the administrative division – is political. The sampling method was multi-stage: stage one was cluster sampling and in stage two, simple random sampling was used. First, based on the total population the number of samples was specified. Cronbach's alpha was used to obtain the reliability of the research instrument. The value of 0.86 for the tool suggests that this tool has very good reliability. To obtain validity of the questionnaire we used for factor analysis by KMO. KMO value of 0.75 for this tool indicates a good level of validity. Some of the information has been gathered from the Population Census of Housing, data from annals, organizations, and institutions concerned. For data analysis ANP model was used to evaluate the ability of neighborhoods of Saqez City.
The statistical population was 38,749 people according to the 2011 census. Cochran's formula was used to determine sample size. The sample size was with 95% confidence for the 380 questionnaires. This number is collected as a percentage of the neighborhoods population.

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Table 1. Specifications and sample size of neighborhoods elected



Number of households


sample size



Number of households


sample size












Tape Malan





Baharestan Pain










Shahrak Daneshgah




total population               38749

Questionnaires   total     380

Results and discussions
Model of assessment of environmental quality based on special –physical, social- cultural, economic, environmental, management- governance components in Hierarchical methods. The Table 2 Priority components involved of assessment environmental quality in the vision of the citizens and city managers indicated. This two group most important issues lower environmental quality neighborhoods Saqez City in economic, management- governance know.
Table 2. Prioritizing Clusters of assessment Environmental Quality neighborhoods Saqez City

The inconsistency index is 0.0162. It is desirable to have a value of less than 0.1





special –physical (objective)


special –physical(Subjective – Functional)


social- cultural




management- governance

Based on the results obtained from the model Network Based, The final weight of the clusters show that cluster environmental with 0.364 Wight, and special –physical with 0.220 Wight have more deference according other components, and Economic cluster with 0.058, management- governance with 0.041, Have non- suitable situation with relative deference. Accordingly, by comparing results of clusters and nodes Priorities for solutions Favorable environment was found in the neighborhoods of the Saqez City.
As shown in the table3: normal column, in fact Priority of each option based on the form Paired comparisons is displayed and most common method is to view the results. Ideal column values by dividing each of the numbers normal column upon largest number of columns is achieved: also value number of the selected option is always one. Weak column values directly from the super matrix ​​are received.
According to Table 3, Shahrak Daneshgah neighborhood are with0.305 Wight in first priority, Shanaz neighborhood with 0.297 Wight in second priority, And Bazar neighborhood with 0.143 Wight in third priority. Tape Malan neighborhood on the final priorities by rating the importance 0.057. It can be deduced that ANP method is more accurate and could be the basis for prioritization purposes. The results of this process with the results Intuitive insight Is coincident.
According result, central neighborhood (Bazar, Shanaz, Koshtargah) than marginal neighborhoods (Tape Malan Baharestan Pain, Shahrak Daneshgah) exceptions Shahrak Daneshgah, have more suitable and environmental sustainably. According index Shahrak Daneshgah with Wight Ideals 1.000 is in best situation and high environmental quality than other neighborhoods and Tape Malan with Wight Ideals 0.187 mark is in lowest level and environmental quality.
Table3. Results of the Analytic network process for assessments of environmental quality in urban neighborhood Saqez City










Shahrak Daneshgah
















Baharestan Pain




Tape Malan

The results of the comparative analysis of each of the six dimensions of environmental quality in the neighborhoods studied Suggest that the Shahrak Daneshgah neighborhood 0.305 to earn points towards the points 0.057 Tape Malan. Tape Malan Neighborhood Priority action plan aimed at improving the quality of the environment in relation to the index are studied. On the other hand, environmental quality has direct relationship with satisfaction of living in neighborhoods. For prioritization of indicators، ANP quotient which shows the proportion of each factor on the environment quality was used. Then، by multiplying the ANP quotient by the proportion of each indicator in their factor، the impact of each indicator was recognized in the environment quality. In the next step, the arrangement of priority of indicators for promotion of environment quality by living in neighborhoods can be achieved. It can be said, Terms of priority areas planning that Tape Malan Neighborhood of the priority action plan with aim of improving environmental quality In relation to the index are studied. At the end، for promotion of the environmental qualities, some solutions was recommended. The main special –physical indicators that should be considered to promote the environmental qualities are including neighborhood that is well-connected with important parts of the city، aesthetic aspects of the neighborhood، mixed use، neighborhood center and sense of central location. The main social indicators are residents’ responsibility، social interaction and participation in public activities، and interaction with city managers.


Main Subjects

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