A Research Into Evolution of Attitudes Affecting Urban Landscape Design Principles In 20th Century And Beyond


Man's interference with environment has generally followed two
main and distinct attitudes, which has led to creation of different
urban landscapes. The first attitude is called "man compatible with
the nature" which has generally shaped landscapes till industrial age.
The second is "man dominant over the nature" affecting landscapes
since industrial age. After revealing of environmental crises - which
are the impacts of the latter- a new way of thinking is being formed,
which includes some aspects of both past attitudes. The main idea of
this new way is to go along with the nature's powers instead of
confronting them and to respect the soul and laws of the nature. This
way of thinking insists on the creation of small sizes of settlements .
In this new approach in addition to the acceptance of the role of
science, emphasis has been put on the ecological characteristics,
individual consciousness, art and creativity in landscape design.