Lack of scientific knowledge about quantitative and qualitative dimensions of ecosystem products and services provided by Caspian forests, in line with other factors accelerating forest degradation, has caused forest land use changes. In Iran, like many other developing countries, this has been led to the large obscurities to political and economic decisions made by public authorities, which could be relevant to current uses as well as future of such resources. So, all tentative [to optimal] allocation of existing resources would be subject to serious risks and uncertainties. Instabilities in theoretical foundations and ignoring practical concerns in selection of methodological approaches to conduct economic valuation studies can result some implications in fostering forest degradation by going to extremes of exploitation practices. Biased calculations by which, forest values are underestimated or overestimated, would motivate amortization of natural capital stocks or contribute to legitimacy if forest land use changes. However, it must be noted that realization of sustainability by combination of forest conservation and its wise use is not something out of economic scopes. Meanwhile, scientific debates on the ways of adding ecosystem to economic systems are under discussions. In this paper, the authors have tried to reflect some of the methodological facts and challenges raised from their research work done on the economic valuation of the Caspian forests in the northern coastline of the country. Within the discussions and based on the most important theoretical fundamentals and practical considerations, existing constraints and potentialities have been argued.